The Laws Of Physics Prove The Existence Of God
Dr. Zvi Shkedi, (December 2008)
A scientific, non-theological, proof based on the second law of thermodynamics - one of the most fundamental laws of physics. One of the consequences of this law is presented in this article.
The physical universe is a perfectly isolated system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, any orderliness in the physical universe can be made possible only through the transfer of useful energy into the physical universe from outside the physical universe. The existence of God as the source of this energy is scientifically proven without resorting to theological or philosophical arguments.
Most people can see color. Some, however, are color blind. Those few who suffer from total color blindness see everything in various shades of gray. They cannot comprehend the concept of color. No matter how much effort is invested in trying to teach them how to see color, they will not get it. Those who suffer from total color blindness honestly believe that there is no such thing as color. They hear people talk about it, but, it is beyond their comprehension. Do they "know" that there is no such thing as color? No. They don't know it. They are just not able to comprehend what color is. Some will recognize the fact that most people can see something which they, themselves, cannot, and acknowledge their disability. Others, will fiercely argue that there is no such thing as color.
All people are blind to infra-red and ultra-violet light. Yet, we do not find people who argue that invisible light does not exist. What is the difference?
A person who learns some physics, optics, and biology knows that "color" is a name given by people to the biological perception and interpretation of light with different wavelengths within the visible spectrum. An educated person knows that the biological perception of light with different wavelengths is limited to within a certain spectrum. Such a person also knows that some people have various degrees of inability to differentiate between light signals of different wavelengths. An educated color-blind person will no longer argue that color does not exist. Nor will an educated person who can see colors argue that invisible light does not exist.
Some people can perceive Godliness. Some people accept God on faith. And, some people have varying degrees of opinions about God ranging from "I don't know" to "there is no such thing". Again, the same question arises. What is the difference? Why do some people fiercely deny the existence of God while to others it is self evident?
We will not attempt to answer questions of human perceptions, emotions, beliefs, and interpretations. Nor will we delve into theology and philosophy. The objective of this article is to show that the existence of God can be scientifically proven without resorting to theological or philosophical arguments.
Entropy is a statistical measure of randomness and disorder. It is a thermodynamic quantity and a mathematical formula that numerically quantifies disorder. In physics, it is the logarithm of the number of ways that particles in a system can be rearranged without changing the statistical appearance of the system. A larger number of available possible rearrangements provides for a higher level of disorder and a higher entropy.
When an ice sculpture melts, the water molecules go from a fixed arrangement to a relatively free arrangement. Because there are more ways to rearrange water molecules in a puddle than there are ways to rearrange water molecules in an ice sculpture, the entropy of the puddle is greater than the entropy of the ice. When the ice melts, the disorder of the water molecules increases. Therefore, the entropy increases.
A collection of pearls of different sizes can be strung in size order on a string. Such an arrangement has a low entropy because there are very few ways to rearrange the pearls on the string while maintaining size order. When the string breaks and the pearls scatter randomly on the floor, the entropy of the pearls is increased. When the pearls are collected and arranged again on a string in size order, the entropy of the pearls is decreased.
Philosophers have expanded the meaning of entropy beyond its scientific definition. They argued that the disorder and randomness of our world is only increasing. As they have tried to explore the implications of this principle, entropy has been philosophically associated with the destruction of order in the universe. In this use, entropy is no longer seen as a thermodynamic measurable quantity; it has become a destructive force in the universe. This use and definition of entropy should not be confused with its precise scientific definition.
Entropy, like temperature, is a statistical property of a physical system. There is no law of conservation of temperature. Likewise, there is no law of conservation of entropy.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics is one of the most fundamental laws of physics. It is a mathematical equation which states that the total entropy of an isolated system can decrease only if useful energy is transferred into the system from outside the system. In an isolated system which is somehow created without an investment of external useful energy, entropy will be at a maximum. An approximation of this condition exists, for example, at the center of the sun. Another theoretical example of such a "maximum entropy" state would be the universe immediately after a "Big Bang" event. A system in which all components are randomly oriented to each other, will forever remain in such a state, unless useful energy (not heat) is invested into the system from the outside.
Every mother knows that toys spread randomly on the floor will never find their proper places in their respective containers, unless someone invests the useful energy necessary to bring order into the mess. Similarly, every child knows that a 500-piece puzzle will never be assembled correctly by simply dropping the pieces randomly out of the box. Archaeologists know that a decorated clay pot is solid evidence that a civilization once lived there. No one will ever believe an argument that the ground, or wind, or chemicals randomly assembled to form that clay pot and accidentally painted a design on it. People invested the necessary energy and intelligence to make it.
When lightning strikes a tree, the tree explodes. Fragments fly in all directions. What would you say if someone showed you an artistically crafted set of table and chairs after such a lightning strike and said that it was made from the tree by the lightning? Except for the second law of thermodynamics, there is no other law of nature which precludes this possibility. So, if it complies with all other laws of nature, will you accept it as a realistic possibility? Something has to come out of the exploding tree. Why not an artistically crafted set of table and chairs?
Open a book, any book. Take a look at the letters and words printed on one page of the book. What would you say if someone told you that the page was printed by an explosion in an ink container? What would you say if someone told you that the entire book was printed by a series of such explosions? Again, except for the second law of thermodynamics, there is no other law of nature which precludes this possibility. Some patterns have to be printed on the paper by the flying droplets of ink. Why not patterns of letters and words which add up to the contents of the book?
Those who believe that entropy in the universe is increasing are de-facto admitting that it is NOT at a maximum. It is less than what the entropy would be if the entire universe looked like the center of the sun. How did the universe get to this "less than maximum entropy" state?
The Source of Orderliness in the Physical Universe
The physical universe is a physically isolated system - isolated from any other neighboring physical systems. Therefore, according to the second law of thermodynamics, any orderliness within the physical universe can be made possible only through the transfer of useful energy into the physical universe from outside the physical universe. It makes no difference if this transfer occurs all at once or gradually over a period of time.
Religious people know that the source of this energy is God. Others may call it by other names like "Intelligent design". Those who are not yet willing to accept the existence of God or of an "Intelligent Designer", are in effect saying that there is no such source of useful energy outside the physical universe. According to them, all energy sources which have produced orderliness in the universe are inside the universe. This would be a major violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and, therefore, contrary to the laws of physics.
The proof presented here is a purely scientific non-theological and non-philosophical proof of the existence of God as a source of useful energy outside the physical universe.
Human Reactions to New Discoveries
Psychological barriers to accepting a newly discovered truth cannot be ignored. It is only natural for people to reject knowledge which they don't understand. Regardless of how true the knowledge is, lack of understanding creates a psychological barrier which most people cannot overcome.
Louis Pasteur - the scientist who discovered the antibiotic effect, the inventor of sterilization, the inventor of the vaccine for rabies, and the scientist who finally proved that spontaneous generation of life does not exist - was mocked by biologists of his generation for being a quack and someone who does not understand biology. Today, he is respected by all as the brilliant scientist whose discoveries opened the gates to modern medicine.
The reaction to Einstein's theory of relativity teaches us another important lesson. When Einstein first published it in 1905, most of the physicists in the world rejected it - it was too difficult to understand. Today, on the other hand, every physicist knows how true it is. Many years later, Einstein himself, when introduced to the new principles of probability and quantum mechanics, rejected it with his famous saying: "God does not play dice with the universe." Even Einstein fell into the trap of this psychological barrier, unable to accept the new and difficult-to-understand discoveries. Again, today, every physicist knows how true these new discoveries are.
Those who already know that God exists, don't need a proof. And, those who don't yet know it, may need some time to think about this proof. It must be understood, however, that any resistance to accepting this proof is a human psychological barrier. As far as the laws of physics are concerned, human factors and barriers are irrelevant. The hypothesis as if an external source of energy does not exist is contrary to the laws of physics. Therefore, this hypothesis is irrefutably wrong.
The English Professor Anthony Flew was, for half a century, the world's leading authority on atheism. When he learned, in 2004, about the breaking of the genetic code in DNA, he immediately realized the impossibility of DNA evolving on its own or initiating randomly in nature. He was able to overcome all barriers, changed his mind, and announced that he believes in God as a first cause. The structure of DNA, he explained, was so awesomely complex that it could not have just evolved. It must have been designed and created by God.
Beyond Location and Time
Up until the end of the 19th century, physicists considered the universe to be a three-dimensional space in which location could be defined with three coordinates. Time was considered to be an independent one-dimensional not-well-understood concept unrelated to location. At the end of the 19th century, physicists discovered that the physical universe is a four-dimensional space in which location and time can interact. This discovery enabled the development of Einstein's theory of relativity in 1905, and, later, enabled Schrödinger to develop the Schrödinger equation which forms the basis of quantum mechanics. The Schrödinger equation describes all quantum effects in a unified four-dimensional space of location and time.
The Hebrew Sefer Yetzirah (The Book of Formation, author unknown), written more than 4000 years ago, describes the universe as a five-dimensional space. It describes the physical universe as a four-dimensional space of location and time and adds a fifth spiritual dimension.
The physical universe is so constructed, that spiritual effects are hidden. The origin of spiritual effects is outside the four dimensions of physical location and time. For example: the author and many others have personally experienced spiritual communication of information with others. There is no known physical mechanism for such communication. Such spiritual communication is just one example of the possible interaction between the spiritual dimension and the four physical dimensions of the universe.
The spiritual dimension of the universe is not visible to scientists whose research is confined to the four physical dimensions. In exact mathematical terminology, what is visible to scientists is the projection of the (five-dimensional) universe into the four physical dimensions. This projection is similar to the image of a three-dimensional object projected on a two-dimensional screen. When we look at the projection, we get some information about the object, but most of the (three dimensional) information is invisible. Similarly, scientific research is limited to the study of the four-dimensional projection of a five (or more)-dimensional universe.
Once we make the transition to understanding the universe as a five (or more)-dimensional space, just like the physicists made the transition to understanding the physical universe as a four-dimensional space, it becomes easier to understand the flow of useful energy from outside the physical universe into it. The laws of physics are confined to the four dimensional space of location and time. The inclusion of the spiritual dimension can explain the mysteries which cannot be understood within the confines of location and time alone. Effects which seem to be miracles and violate the laws of physics can be explained as an interaction between the physical universe and the non-physical dimension of the universe. Now, it is only a matter of time before new five (or more)-dimensional equations are developed to describe events in this five (or more)-dimensional universe.
Copyright 2008, Zvi Shkedi